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Billard SpieleBillard oder Billardspiel ist ein Spiel, bei dem zwei Personen oder zwei Teams gegeneinander spielen. Mit dem Queue werden die Billardkugeln auf einem mit Billardtuch bespannten Billardtisch gestoßen. Dabei stößt der Spieler mit dem Queue nur die. Beim Billard treten zwei Spieler oder Teams gegeneinander an und spielen auf einem Billardtisch. Sie sind mit einem sogenannten "Queue" ausgestattet (der. Blog über Billard, Billardsport und Billard-Ausrüstung - mit den besten Tipps und Tricks.
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Notre dernier conseil : Faites-vous plaisir et amusez-vous! Alhazen's billiard problem seeks to find the point at the edge of a circular "billiards" table at which a cue ball at a given point must be aimed in order to carom once off the edge of the table and strike another ball at a second given point.
This problem is insoluble using a compass and ruler construction Elkin , Riede , Neumann On an elliptical billiard table, the envelope of a trajectory is a smaller ellipse , a hyperbola , a line through the foci of the ellipse , or a closed polygon Steinhaus , pp.
The closed polygon case is related to Poncelet's porism. One can also consider billiard paths on polygonal billiard tables.
The only closed billiard path of a single circuit in an acute triangle is the pedal triangle. There are an infinite number of multiple-circuit paths, but all segments are parallel to the sides of the pedal triangle.
There exists a closed billiard path inside a cyclic quadrilateral if its circumcenter lies inside the quadrilateral Wells There are four identical closed billiard paths inside and touching each face of a cube such that each leg on the path has the same length Hayward ; Steinhaus , ; Gardner , pp.
This path is in the form of a chair-shaped hexagon, and each leg has length. Lewis Carroll Charles Dodgson also considered this problem Weaver There are three identical closed billiard paths inside and touching each face of a tetrahedron such that each leg of the path has the same length Gardner , pp.
These were discovered by J. Conway and independently by Hayward For a tetrahedron with unit side lengths, each leg has length. Conway has shown that period orbits exist in all tetrahedra , but it is not known if there are periodic orbits in every polyhedron Croft et al.
Altshiller Court, N. New York: Dial Press, pp. Bakst, A. Mathematical Puzzles and Pastimes. New York: Van Nostrand, pp.
Bellman, R. New York: Academic Press, Boldrighini, C. Coxeter, H. The early balls were made from wood and clay , but the rich preferred to use ivory.
Early billiard games involved various pieces of additional equipment, including the "arch" related to the croquet hoop , "port" a different hoop and "king" a pin or skittle near the arch in the s, but other game variants, relying on the cushions and eventually on pockets cut into them , were being formed that would go on to play fundamental roles in the development of modern billiards.
The early croquet-like games eventually led to the development of the carom or carambole billiards category — what most non- Commonwealth and non-US speakers mean by the word billiards.
These games, which once completely dominated the cue sports world but have declined markedly in many areas over the last few generations, are games played with three or sometimes four balls, on a table without holes and without obstructions or targets in most cases , in which the goal is generally to strike one object ball with a cue ball , then have the cue ball rebound off of one or more of the cushions and strike a second object ball.
Variations include straight rail , balkline , one-cushion , three-cushion , five-pins , and four-ball , among others.
Over time, a type of obstacle returned, originally as a hazard and later as a target, in the form of pockets , or holes partly cut into the table bed and partly into the cushions, leading to the rise of pocket billiards , including "pool" games such as eight-ball, nine-ball, straight pool and one-pocket ; Russian pyramid ; snooker ; English billiards and others.
In the United States pool and billiards had died out for a bit, but between and pool and billiards became very popular.
Players in annual championships began to receive their own cigarette cards. This was mainly due to the fact that it was a popular pastime for troops to take their minds off from battle.
However, by the end of World War II pool and billiards began to die down once again. It was not until when the film "The Hustler" came out that sparked a new interest in the game.
Now the game is generally a well-known game and has many players of all different skill levels. There are few more cheerful sights, when the evenings are long, and the weather dull, than a handsome, well-lighted billiard room, with the smooth, green surface of the billiard table; the ivory balls flying noiselessly here and there, or clicking musically together.
The games with regulated international professional competition, if not others, have been referred to as "sports" or "sporting" events, not simply "games", since at the latest.
Snooker, though technically a pocket billiards variant and closely related in its equipment and origin to the game of English billiards, is a professional sport organized at the international level, and its rules bear little resemblance to those of modern pool, pyramid and other such games.
A "Billiards" category encompassing pool, snooker and carom was featured in the World Games , held in Duisburg , Germany, and the Asian Games also saw the introduction of a "Cue sports" category.
In Russian pyramid there are sixteen balls, as in pool, but fifteen are white and numbered, and the cue ball is usually red. Carom billiards balls are larger than pool balls, having a diameter of Snooker balls are smaller than American-style pool balls with a diameter of English billiard balls are the same size as snooker balls and come in sets of three balls two cue balls and a red, an object ball.
Other games, such as bumper pool , have custom ball sets. Billiard balls have been made from many different materials since the start of the game, including clay, bakelite , celluloid , crystallite , ivory , plastic, steel and wood.
The dominant material from until the early 20th century was ivory. The search for a substitute for ivory use was not for environmental concerns, but based on economic motivation and fear of danger for elephant hunters.
The first viable substitute was celluloid , invented by John Wesley Hyatt in , but the material was volatile, sometimes exploding during manufacture, and was highly flammable.
There are many sizes and styles of pool and billiard tables. Generally, tables are rectangles twice as long as they are wide.
Most pool tables are known as 7-, 8-, or 9-footers, referring to the length of the table's long side.
Full-size snooker and English billiard tables are 12 feet 3. Pool halls tend to have 9-foot 2. Pubs will typically use 7-foot 2.
Ten-foot tables remain the standard size for carom billiard games. The slates on modern carom tables are usually heated to stave off moisture and provide a consistent playing surface.
The length of the pool table will typically be a function of space, with many homeowners purchasing an 8-foot 2. Full-size pool tables are 4.
High-quality tables have a bed made of thick slate, in three pieces to prevent warping and changes due to temperature and humidity.
Smaller bar tables are most commonly made with a single piece of slate. Pocket billiards tables of all types normally have six pockets, three on each side four corner pockets, and two side or middle pockets.
Cloth has been used to cover billiards tables since the 15th century. Bar or tavern tables, which get a lot of play, use "slower", more durable cloth.
The cloth used in upscale pool and snooker halls and home billiard rooms is "faster" i. Snooker cloth traditionally has a nap consistent fiber directionality and balls behave differently when rolling against versus along with the nap.
The cloth of the billiard table has traditionally been green, reflecting its origin originally the grass of ancestral lawn games , and has been so colored since at least the 16th century, but it is also produced in other colors such as red and blue.
A rack is the name given to a frame usually wood, plastic or aluminium used to organize billiard balls at the beginning of a game. This is traditionally triangular in shape, but varies with the type of billiards played.
There are two main types of racks; the more common triangular shape which is used for eight-ball and straight pool and the diamond-shaped rack used for nine-ball.
There are several other types of less common rack types that are also used, based on a "template" to hold the billiard balls tightly together. Most commonly it is a thin plastic sheet with diamond-shaped cut-outs that hold the balls that is placed on the table with the balls set on top of the rack.
The rack is used to set up the "break" and removed before the "break shot" occurs. Billiards games are mostly played with a stick known as a cue.
A cue is usually either a one piece tapered stick or a two piece stick divided in the middle by a joint of metal or phenolic resin. High quality cues are generally two pieces and are made of a hardwood, generally maple for billiards and ash for snooker.
The butt end of the cue is of larger circumference and is intended to be gripped by a player's hand. The shaft of the cue is of smaller circumference, usually tapering to an 0.
The tip, in conjunction with chalk, can be used to impart spin to the cue ball when it is not hit in its center.
Cheap cues are generally made of pine, low-grade maple and formerly often of ramin , which is now endangered , or other low-quality wood, with inferior plastic ferrules.
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